The refers to the various elements of the United States Armed Forces that are stationed in Japan. Under the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, the United States is obliged to protect Japan in close cooperation with the Japan Self-Defense Forces for maritime defense, ballistic missile defense, domestic air control, communications security (COMSEC) and disaster response operations.
After the Surrender of Japan in World War II, the United States Armed Forces assumed administrative authority in Japan. The Japanese Imperial Army and Japanese Imperial Navy were decommissioned, and the U.S. Armed Forces took control of their military bases until the new government could be formed and positioned to reestablish authority. Allies of World War II planned to Demilitarisation Japan, and new government adopted the Constitution of Japan with Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution in 1947.
After the Korean War began in 1950, Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan and the Japanese government established the paramilitary "National Police Reserve," which was later developed into the Japan Self-Defense Forces.
In 1951 the Treaty of San Francisco was signed by the allied countries and Japan, which restored its formal sovereignty. At the same time, the U.S. and Japan signed the Japan-America Security Alliance. By this treaty, USFJ is responsible for the defense of Japan. As part of this agreement, the Japanese government requested that the U.S. military bases remain in Japan, and agreed to provide funds and various interests specified in the Status of Forces Agreement. At the expiration of the treaty, the United States and Japan signed the new Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan. The status of the United States Forces Japan was defined in the U.S.-Japan Status of Forces Agreement. This treaty is still in effect, and it forms the basis of Japan"s foreign policy. According to academics and experts, the U.S. provision of Japan"s defense allowed Japan to focus domestic spending on their own economy, thereby assisting Japan with becoming one of the most powerful countries economically in the world.
In the Vietnam War, the US military bases in Japan, especially those in Okinawa, were used as important strategic and logistic bases. In 1970, Koza riot occurred against the US military presence in Okinawa. The USAF strategic bombers were deployed in the bases in Okinawa, which was still administered by the U.S. government. Before the 1972 reversion of the island to Japanese administration, it has been speculated but never confirmed that up to 1,200 nuclear weapons may have been stored at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa in the 1960s.
, there are approximately 50,000 U.S. military personnel stationed in Japan, along with approximately 40,000 dependents of military personnel and another 5,500 American civilians employed there by the United States Department of Defense. The United States Seventh Fleet is based in Yokosuka. The 3rd Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF) is based in Okinawa. 130 USAF fighters are stationed in the Misawa Air Base and Kadena Air Base.Yoshida, Reiji, "Basics of the U.S. military presence", Japan Times, 25 March 2008, p. 3.
The Japanese government paid ¥217 billion (US$ 2.0 billion) in 2007 as annual host-nation support called .
The U.S. government employs over 8,000 Master Labor Contract (MLC)/Indirect Hire Agreement (IHA) workers on Okinawa (per the Labor Management Organization) not including Okinawan contract workers.
The relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma to Henoko was resolved as of December 2013 with the signing of the landfill agreement by the governor of Okinawa. Under the terms of the new U.S.-Japan agreement 5.000 U.S. Marines will be relocated to Guam and 4.000 U.S. Marines to other Pacific locations such as Hawaii or Australia, while some 10.000 Marines will remain on Okinawa.
The scope and frequency of U.S. Forces Japan participation in major exercises has been rising in recent years. This is largely attributable to the refocus of the U.S. to the Asia-Pacific region, although certain forces, especially the Marine Corps, have never left the region and continue to be heavily involved in theater security and regional stability. United States Pacific Command (USPACOM), the parent command of U.S. Forces Japan, has also taken on larger and broader roles during exercises in Japan, particularly in those exercises on mainland Japan.
U.S. Forces Japan has no control or authority over subordinate command exercises beyond manipulation of Force Protection Condition levels, which is the only area of tactical control residing with U.S. Forces Japan.
Okinawa makes up only 0.6 percent of the nation’s land area; yet, approximately 62% of U.S. bases in Japan (exclusive use only) are in Okinawa.
73.4% of Japanese citizens appreciate the mutual security treaty with the U.S. and the presence of the USFJ, a small but very vocal portion of the population demand a reduction in the number of U.S. military bases presence.
Many of the bases, such as Yokota Air Base, Naval Air Facility Atsugi and Kadena Air Base, are located in the vicinity of residential districts, and local citizens have complained about excessive aircraft noise.
There is also debate over the Status of Forces Agreement which covers a variety of administrative technicalities blending the systems which control how certain situations are handled between the U.S."s and Japan"s legal framework. SOFA was created to allow both nations the best way to administer legalities, and has worked well over the years.
Per Okinawa Prefectural Police data, U.S. service members commit far less crimes than local Okinawans. According to the U.S.-Japan Status of Forces Agreement, U.S. personnel who commit crimes off-duty and off-base, are always prosecuted under the Japanese law.
On February 12, 2008, the National Police Agency (of Japan) or NPA, released its annual criminal statistics that included activity within the Okinawan prefecture. These findings held American soldiers responsible for 53 crimes per 10,000 U.S. male servicemen, while Okinawan males held a crime rate of 366 crimes per 10,000. The crime rate found a U.S. servicemen in Okinawa to be 86% less likely to commit a crime than that of an Okinawan male.
At the commencement of the occupation of Japan, many U.S. soldiers participated in the Special Comfort Facility Association. Japanese government recruited 55,000 women to work providing sexual services to US military personnel. The Association was closed by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. However, John W. Dower, Pulitzer Prize-winning historian, alleged that many U.S. troops committed Rape during the occupation of Japan and that press censorship led to under-reporting of these crimes.
In 1995, the 1995 Okinawa rape incident by two U.S. marines and one U.S. sailor led to demands for the removal of all U.S. military bases in Japan. Other controversial incidents include helicopter crashes, the Girard incident, the Michael Brown Okinawa assault incident, the death of 1996 Padilla car accident and the death of Randall Eskridge. In February 2008, a 38-year-old U.S. Marine based on Okinawa was arrested in connection with the reported rape of a 14-year-old Okinawan girl.
U.S. Forces Japan designated 22 February as a Day of Reflection for all U.S. military facilities in Japan, and established the Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Task Force in an effort to prevent similar incidents. In November 2009, Staff Sgt. Clyde "Drew" Gunn, a U.S. Army soldier stationed at Torii Station was involved in a hit-and-run accident of a pedestrian in Yomitan Village on Okinawa. Later, in April 2010, the soldier was charged with failing to render aid and vehicular manslaughter. Staff Sgt. Gunn, of Ocean Springs, Mississippi, was eventually sentenced to 2 years and 8 months in jail on October 15, 2010.
On 13 May 2013, Toru Hashimoto, co-leader of the Japan Restoration Association said to a senior American military official at the Marine Corps base in Okinawa “We can’t control the sexual energy of these brave marines.” and told United States soldiers should make more use of the Prostitution in Japan to reduce sexual crimes against local women. Hashimoto also told the necessity of former Japanese Army comfort women and Western princess.
In October 2012, twelve Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey were transferred to the US Marine Corps Air Station Futenma to replace aging Vietnam-era Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters in Okinawa, greatly increasing the safety, capability and range of the Marines who are charged with Japan"s defense as well as regional security. Then in October 2013, an additional 12 Ospreys arrived, again to replace CH-46 Sea Knights, increasing the number of Ospreys to 24. Japanese Defence Minister Satoshi Morimoto explained the Osprey aircraft is safe adding that two recent accidents were "caused by human factors".
The USFJ headquarters is at Yokota Air Base, about 30 km west of central Tokyo.
The U.S. military installations in Japan and their managing branches are as follows:
*Marine Corps Base Camp Smedley D. Butler, Okinawa Prefecture, Yamaguchi Prefectures. (Although these camps are dispersed throughout Okinawa and the rest of Japan they are all under the heading of Camp Smedley D. Butler):
Temporary use facilities and areas are as follows:
In Okinawa, U.S. military installations occupy about 10.4 percent of the total land usage. Approximately 74.7 percent of all the U.S. military facilities in Japan are located on the island of Okinawa.
The United States has returned some facilities to Japanese control. Some are used as military bases of the JSDF; others have become civilian airports or government offices; many are factories, office buildings or resential developments in the private sector. Due to the Special actions committee on Okinawa, more land in Okinawa is in the process of being returned. These areas include—Camp Kuwae , MCAS Futenma, areas within Camp Zukeran , about of the Northern Training Area, Aha Training Area, Gimbaru Training Area (also known as Camp Gonsalves), small portion of the Makiminato Service Area (also known as Camp Kinser), and Naha Port.
*Army Composite Service Group Area (later, Chinen Service Area), Nanjo, Okinawa
*Army STRATCOM Warehouse (later, Urasoe Warehouse), Urasoe, Okinawa
*Bluff Area (later, Yamate Dependent Housing Area), Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Bolo Point Auxiliary Airfield (later, Trainfire Range), Yomitan, Okinawa
*Bolo Point Army Annex, Yomitan, Okinawa
*Camp Bender, Ota, Gunma
*Camp Boone, Ginowan, Okinawa
*Camp Burness, Chuo, Tokyo
*Camp Chickamauga, 19th Infantry, Beppu, OitaA Soldier in Kyushu, By Capt. William B. Koons, October 1, 1947
*Camp Chigasaki, Chigasaki, Kanagawa
*Camp Chitose Annex (Chitose I, II), Chitose, Hokkaido
*Camp Coe, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Camp Crawford, Sapporo
*Camp Drake, Asaka, Saitama
*Camp Drew, Oizumi, Gunma
*Camp Eta Jima, Etajima, Hiroshima
*Camp Hakata, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka
*Camp Hardy, Ginoza, Okinawa
*Camp Haugen, Hachinohe, Aomori
*Camp Katakai, Kujukuri, Chiba
*Camp King (later, Omiya Ordnance Sub Depot), Omiya-ku, Saitama
*Camp Kokura, Kokuraminami-ku, Kitakyushu
*Camp Kubasaki (later, Kubasaki School Area),
*Camp McGill, Yokosuka, Kanagawa
*Camp McNair, Fujiyoshida, Yamanashi
*Camp Mercy, Ginowan, Okinawa
*Camp Moore, Kawasaki, Kanagawa
*Camp Mower 34th Infantry, Sasebo, Nagasaki
*Camp Nara, Nara, Nara
*Camp Ojima, Ota, Gunma
*Camp Otsu, Otsu, Shiga
*Camp Palmer, Funabashi, Chiba
*Camp Stilwell, Maebashi, Gunma
*Camp Weir, Shinto, Gunma
*Camp Whittington, Kumagaya, Saitama
*Camp Wood, Kumamoto
*Camp Younghans, Higashine, Yamagata
*Chibana Army Annex (later, Chibana Site), Okinawa, Okinawa
*Chinen Army Annex (later, Chinen Site), Chinen, Okinawa
*Chuo Kogyo (later, Niikura Warehouse Area), Wako, Saitama
*Deputy Division Engineer Office, Urasoe, Okinawa
*Division School Center, Kokura
*Etchujima Warehouse, Koto, Tokyo
*Hachinohe LST Barge Landing Area, Hachinohe, Aomori
*Hakata Transportation Office, Hakata-ku, Fukuoka
*Hamby Auxiliary Airfield, Chatan, Okinawa
*Hosono Ammunition Depot, Seika, Kyoto
*Iribaru (Nishihara) Army Annex, Uruma, Okinawa
*Ishikawa Army Annex, Uruma, Okinawa
*Japan Logistical Command (Yokohama Customs House), Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Jefferson Heights, Chiyoda, Tokyo
*Kanagawa Milk Plant, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Kashiji Army Annex, Chatan, Okinawa
*Kishine Barracks, Yokohama
*Kobe Pier No. 6, Kobe, Hyogo
*Kobe Port Building, Kobe, Hyogo
*Koza Radio Relay Annex (later, Koza Communication Site), Okinawa, Okinawa
*Kure Barge Landing Area, Kure, Hiroshima
*Lincoln Center, Chiyoda, Tokyo
*Moji Port, Moji-ku, Kitakyushu
*Nagoya Procurement (Purchasing and Contracting) Office, Nagoya, Aichi
*Naha Army Annex (later, Naha Site), Naha, Okinawa
*Naha Service Center, Naha, Okinawa
*Namihira Army Annex, Yomitan, Okinawa
*Negishi Racetrack Area, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Okinawa Regional Exchange Cold Storage (later, Naha Cold Storage), Naha, Okinawa
*Okinawa Regional Exchange Dry Storage Warehouse (later, Makiminato Warehouse), Urasoe, Okinawa
*Onna Point Army Annex (later, Onna Site), Onna, Okinawa
*Oppama Ordnance Depot, Yokosuka, Kanagawa
*Ota Koizumi Airfield (Patton Field Air Drop Range), Oizumi, Gunma
*Palace Heights, Chiyoda, Tokyo
*Sakuradani Rifle Range, Chikushino, Fukuoka
*Sanno Hotel Officer"s Quarter, Chiyoda, Tokyo
*Shinzato Communication Site, Nanjo, Okinawa
*South Ammunition Storage Annex (later, South Ammunition Storage Area), Yaese, Okinawa
*Sunabe Army Annex, Chatan, Okinawa
*Tana Ammunition Depot, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Tairagawa (Deragawa) Communication Site, Uruma, Okinawa
*Tengan Communication Site, Uruma, Okinawa
*Tokyo Army Hospital, Chuo, Tokyo
*Tokyo Quartermaster Depot, Minato, Tokyo
*Tokyo Ordnance Depot (later, Camp Oji), Kita, Tokyo
*U.S. Army Medical Center, Sagamihara
*U.S. Army Printing and Publication Center, Far East, Kawasaki, Kanagawa
*U.S. Army Procurement Agency, Japan, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Yokohama Center Pier (MSTS-FE), Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Yokohama Engineering Depot, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Yokohama Motor Command, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Yokohama Ordnance Depot, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Yokohama POL Depot, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Yokohama Servicemen Club, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Yokohama Signal Supply Depot, Kawasaki, Kanagawa
*Yokohama Signal Maintenance Depot (JLC Air Strip), Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Yokohama South Pier, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Yomitan Army Annex, Yomitan, Okinawa
*Zama Rifle Range, Sagamihara
*Zukeran Propagation Annex (later, Communication Site), Chatan, Okinawa
*Haiki (Sasebo) Rifle Range, Sasebo, Nagasaki
*Inanba Shima Gunnery Firing Range, Mikurajima, Tokyo
*Kinugasa Ammunition Depot, Yokosuka, Kanagawa
*Koshiba POL Depot, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Ominato Communication Site, Ominato, Aomori
*Omura Rifle Range, Omura, Nagasaki
*Makiminato Service Area Annex, Urasoe, Okinawa
*Minamitorishima Communication Site, Ogasawara, Tokyo
*Nagahama Rifle Range, Kure, Hiroshima
*Nagai Dependent Housing Area (Admiralty Heights), Yokosuka, Kanagawa
*Nagiridani Dependent Housing Area, Sasebo, Nagasaki
*Naval Air Facility Oppama, Yokosuka, Kanagawa
*Navy EM Club, Yokosuka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa
*Niigata Sekiya Communication Site, Chuo-ku, Niigata
*Shinyamashita Dependent Housing Area (Bayside Court), Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Sobe Communication Site (NSGA Hanza), Yomitan, Okinawa
*Tokachibuto Communication Site, Urahoro, Hokkaido
*Tomioka Storage Area, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Tsujido Maneuver Area, Chigasaki, Kanagawa
*Yokohama Bakery, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Yokohama Beach (Honmoku) Dependent Housing Area, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Yokohama Chapel Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Yokohama Cold Storage, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Yokosuka Naval Pier, Yokosuka, Kanagawa
*Yosami Communication Site, Kariya, Aichi
*Asoiwayama Liaison Annex, Tobetsu, Hokkaido
*Brady Air Base (later, Gannosu Air Station), Higashi-ku, Fukuoka
*Chiran Communication Site, Chiran, Kagoshima
*Daikanyama Communication Site, Yugawara, Kanagawa
*Funabashi Communication Site, Funabashi, Chiba
*Grant Heights Dependent Housing Area, Nerima, Tokyo
*Green Park Housing Annex, Musashino, Tokyo
*Hachinohe Small Arms Range, Hachinohe, Aomori
*Hamura School Annex, Hamura, Tokyo
*Hirao Communication Site, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka
*Itazuke Administration Annex (Kasugabaru DHA), Kasuga, Fukuoka
*Kadena Dependent Housing Area, Yomitan, Okinawa
*Kasatoriyama Radar Site, Tsu, Mie
*Kashiwa Communication Site (Camp Tomlinson), Kashiwa, Chiba
*Kozoji Ammunition Depot, Kasugai, Aichi
*Kume Jima Air Station, Kumejima, Okinawa
*Kushimoto Radar Site, Kushimoto, Wakayama
*Mineoka Liaison Annex, Minamiboso, Chiba
*Mito ATG Range, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki
*Miyako Jima Air Station, Miyakojima, Okinawa
*Miyako Jima VORTAC Site, Miyakojima, Okinawa
*Moriyama Air Station, Nagoya, Aichi
*Naha Air Force/Navy Annex, Naha, Okinawa
*Najima Warehouse Area, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka
*Ofuna Warehouse, Yokohama, Kanagawa
*Oshima Communication Center, Oshima, Tokyo
*Rokko Communication Site, Kobe, Hyogo
*Senaha Communications Station, Yomitan, Okinawa (returned to the Japanese government in September 2006)
*Sendai Kunimi Communication Site, Sendai
*Showa (later, Akishima) Dependent Housing Area, Akishima, Tokyo
*Sunabe Warehouse, Chatan, Okinawa
*Wajima Liaison Annex, Wajima, Ishikawa
*Wajiro Water Supply Site, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka
*Wakkanai Air Station, Wakkanai, Hokkaido
*Yamada Ammunition Depot, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu
*Yokawame Communication Site, Misawa, Aomori
*Yozadake Air Station, Itoman, Okinawa
*Aha Training Area, Kunigami, Okinawa
*Camp Gifu, Kakamigahara, Gifu
*Camp Hauge, Uruma, Okinawa
*Camp Okubo, Uji, Kyoto
*Camp Shinodayama, Izumi, Osaka
*Gimbaru Training Area, Kin, Okinawa
*Ihajo Kanko Hotel, Uruma, Okinawa
*Makiminato Housing Area, Naha, Okinawa
*Onna Communication Site, Onna, Okinawa
*Awase Golf Course, Okinawa Prefecture (returned to the Japanese government in April 2010)
*Yaka Rest Center, Kin, Okinawa
*United States Forces Korea (USFK)
*United States Forces Japan
*U.S. Naval Forces Japan
*U.S. Forces, Japan (GlobalSecurity.org)
*Overseas Presence: Issues Involved in Reducing the Impact of the U.S. Military Presence on Okinawa, GAO, March 1998
*U.S. Military Issues in Okinawa
*LMOCategory:Commands of the United States Armed Forces