Minyak bumi atawa pétroleum (tina basa Yunani petra – batu jeung elaion atawa basa Latin oleum – minyak), minyak atah (crude oil), ogé katelah emas hideung, hartina cairan kentel, warnana kopi atawa semu héjo, nu mangrupakeun campuran rupa-rupa hidrokarbon, utamana golongan alkana, sarta kandungan lianna nu aya di lapisan luhur dina jero kulit bumi Bumi. Minyak bumi utamana dipaké pikeun bahan bakar nu penting pisan salaku sumber énergi (IEA Key World Energy Statistics). Minyak bumi ogé mangrupakeun bahan baku pikeun rupa-rupa produk bahan kimia, di antarana pangleyur, pupuk, péstisida, jeung plastik.
Kalolobaan ahli géologi menanggap minyak bumi sarupa jeung batubara sarta gas alam, mangrupa produk diagenesis vegetasi kuna sapanjang skala waktu géologis. Ceuk ieu téori, kabentukna minyak bumi téh tina pasésaan sato laut prasajarah sarta tangkal terestrial. Sapanjan jutaan taun, zat sanyawa organik ieu pagalo jeung leutak, sarta kakubur dina lapisan bahan sédimén nu kandel. Panas jeung tekenan nu dihasilkeunana ngabalukarkeun ieu pasésaan téh ngalaman métamorposis, mimiti jadi bahan sarupa lilin nu katelah kerogén, lajeng jadi hidrokarbon cair jeung gas dina prosés nu disebut katagenesis. Bahan ieu lajeng ngalir ka lapisan batu luhureunana nepi ka antukna kakurung dina pori batu nu disebut reservoir minyak, nu salajengna digali ku urang salaku lapang minyak. Jerona ieu reservoir antara 150 m nepi ka 5 km.
As oil prices continue to escalate, other alternatives to producing oil have been gaining importance. The most viable of these is the coal to oil process, known as the Fischer-Tropsch process, that aims to convert coal into crude oil. It was a concept pioneered in Nazi Germany when imports of petroleum were restricted due to war and Germany found a method to extract oil from coal. It was known as Ersatz ("substitute" in German language), and accounted for nearly half the total oil used in World War II by Germany. However, the process was used only as a last resort as naturally occurring oil was much cheaper. As crude oil prices increase, the cost of coal to oil conversion becomes comparatively cheaper.
The method involves converting high ash coal into synthetic oil in a multistage process. Ideally, a ton of coal produces nearly 200 liters (1.25 bbl) of crude, with by-products ranging from tar to Abundance of the chemical elements.
Currently, two companies have commercialised their Fischer-Tropsch technology. Shell in Bintulu, Malaysia, uses natural gas as a feedstock, and produces primarily low-sulfur diesel fuels. Sasol in South Africa uses coal as a feedstock, and produces a variety of synthetic petroleum products.
The process is today used in South Africa to produce most of the country"s diesel fuel from coal by the company Sasol. The process was used in South Africa to meet its energy needs during its isolation under Apartheid. This process has received renewed attention in the quest to produce low sulfur diesel fuel in order to minimize the environmental impact from the use of diesel engines.
More recently explored is Thermal depolymerization (TDP). In theory, TDP can convert any organic waste into petroleum.
The M. King Hubbert peak theory, also known as peak oil, is a theory concerning the long-term rate of production of conventional oil and other fossil fuels. It assumes that oil reserves are not replenishable (i.e. that abiogenic replenishment is negligible), and predicts that future world oil production must inevitably reach a peak and then decline as these reserves are exhausted. Controversy surrounds the theory, as predictions for when the global peak will actually take place are highly dependent on the past production and discovery data used in the calculation.
Proponents of peak oil theory also refer as an example of their theory, that when any given oil well produces oil in similar volumes to the amount of water used to obtain the oil, it tends to produce less oil afterwards, leading to the relatively quick exhaustion and/or commercial unviablility of the well in question.
The issue can be considered from the point of view of individual regions or of the world as a whole. Originally M. King Hubbert noticed that the discoveries in the United States had peaked in the early 1930s, and concluded that production would then peak in the early 1970s. His prediction turned out to be correct, and after the US peaked in 1971 - and thus lost its excess production capacity - OPEC was finally able to manipulate oil prices, which led to the oil crisis in 1973. Since then, most other countries have also peaked: Britain"s North Sea, for example in late 1990s. China has confirmed that two of its largest producing regions are in decline, and Mexico"s national oil company, Pemex, has announced that Cantarell Field, one of the world"s largest offshore fields, is expected to peak in 2006, and then decline 14% per annum.
For various reasons (perhaps most importantly the lack of transparency in accounting of global oil reserves), it is difficult to predict the oil peak in any given region. Based on available production data, proponents have previously (and incorrectly) predicted the peak for the world to be in years 1989, 1995, or 1995-2000. However these predictions date from before the recession of the early 1980s, and the consequent reduction in global consumption, the effect of which was to delay the date of any peak by several years. A new prediction by Goldman Sachs picks 2007 for oil and some time later for natural gas. Just as the 1971 U.S. peak in oil production was only clearly recognized after the fact, a peak in world production will be difficult to discern until production clearly drops off.
One signal is that 2005 saw a dramatic fall in announced new oil projects coming to production from 2008 onwards. Since it takes on average four to six years for a new project to start producing oil, in order to avoid the peak, these new projects would have to not only make up for the depletion of current fields, but increase total production annually to meet increasing demand.
2005 also saw substantial increases in oil prices due to temporary circumstances, which then failed to be controlled by increasing production. The inability to increase production in the short term, indicating a general lack of spare capacity, and the corresponding uncontrolled price fluctuations, can be interpreted as a sign that peak oil has occurred or is presently in the process of occurring.
Dumasar produksi taun 2004 (jb/p = juta barél per poé):
* Rusia - 9.27 jb/p
* Amérika Serikat 1 - 8.69 jb/p
* Iran (OPEC) - 4.09 jb/p
* Méksiko 1 - 3.83 jb/p
* Cina 1 - 3.62 jb/p
* Norwégia 1 - 3.18 jb/p
* Kanada 1 - 3.14 jb/p
* Vénézuéla (OPEC) 1 - 2.86 jb/p
* Uni Émirat Arab (OPEC) - 2.76 jb/p
* Kuwait (OPEC) - 2.51 jb/p
* Nigeria (OPEC) - 2.51 jb/p
* Inggris 1 - 2.08 jb/p
* Irak (OPEC) 2 - 2.03 jb/p
2 Najan masih anggota, Irak can kungsi deui dilaporkeun catetan produksina ti 1998
Dumasar jumlah nu diékspor taun 2003:
* Saudi Arabia (OPEC)
* Norway 1
* Iran (OPEC)
* United Arab Emirates (OPEC)
* Venezuela (OPEC) 1
* Kuwait (OPEC)
* Nigeria (OPEC)
* Mexico 1
* Algeria (OPEC)
* Libya (OPEC) 1
Catet yén AS ampir maké sakabéh produksina sorangan, sedengkeun Inggris kiwari geus jadi net-importer.
Produksi/konsumsi sadunya (taun 2005) kira 84 juta barél unggal poéna.
* "Destination Earth" at the Prelinger Archives
* Greenhouse gases
* Hubbert peak (aka peak oil)
* Oil well
* Olduvai theory (not strictly about oil, but it basically assumes that oil and gas are the only significant energy sources)
* US Energy Information Administration - Part of the informative website of the US Government"s Energy Information Administration.
* American Petroleum Institute - A site run by the American Petroleum Institute, the trade association of the US oil industry.
* Long Emergency Blog - A site with Peak Oil news and discussion, regarding how our world will never be the same.
* The Oil Drum - A Community Discussion about Peak Oil and the Oil Industry.
* Crude Oil Commodity Charts - Price charts for crude oil
* Major dates of the Polish petroleum industry
* Dismissal of the Claims of a Biological Connection for Natural Petroleum.
* Abiogenic Gas Debate 11:2002 (EXPLORER)
* An introduction to the modern petroleum science, and to the Russian-Ukrainian theory of deep, abiotic petroleum origins.
* Unconventional Ideas About Unconventional Gas (Society of Petroleum Engineers)
* BP Statistical Revue of World Energy
* Oil Rocks
* Peak Oil News and Articles
* Nymex - oil trading center of the US
* Bloomberg Energy Prices - current prices on world mercantile exchanges
* Oil Marketer - oil news and market information
* Oil in troubled waters - Economist article on investor approaches to oil markets, supply, and future
* PDVSA - The site for the state-owned oil company of Venezuela
* venezuelanalysis.com - A site focusing on developments in Venezuela, with a big emphasis on the oil issue.
* Petroleum industry portal
* The End of the Age of Oil - article adapted from a talk by Caltech vice provost and professor of physics David Goodstein
* The Politics of Oil - A report on the oil industry"s influence of lawmakers and public policy by the Center for Public Integrity.
* BBC: Stability fears rise as oil reliance grows
* Top Saudi Says Kingdom Has Plenty of Oil "261 billion barrels in reserve..."
* Lee Raymond of Exxon Mobile believes oil supplies will rise
* Known Saudi Arabian Oil Reserves Tripled
* Pemex"s oil estimates double: Mexican Oil company"s estimate of reserves doubled.
*Dismissal of the Claims of a Biological Connection for Natural Petroleum
*Abiogenic Gas Debate 11:2002 (EXPLORER)
*Department of Energy EIA - World supply and consumption
* US petroleum prices